By D. Herzog

Tracing sexual violence in Europes 20th century from the Armenian genocide to Auschwitz and Algeria to Bosnia, this pathbreaking quantity expands army historical past to incorporate the world of sexuality. reading either tales of consensual romance and of intimate brutality, it additionally contributes major new insights to the background of sexuality.

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Extra resources for Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century (Genders and Sexualities in History)

Example text

As US doctor William S. Dodd reported from Konia, 15 August 1915: The Turks here are saying, ‘The Armenians must die and we are sending them down there for that purpose’. The Turks of Konia have been noted for their mildness and opposition to such measures, but their temper we can see is changing. The papers are publishing articles against the Armenians as traitors, as revolutionists, telling of atrocities committed by them in Van, 60,000 Turks killed by them etc, everything to inflame their minds and poison their thoughts.

According to Alfred Van der Zee, Danish Consul at Smyrna (Izmir), in March 1914, the valis (general governors) of Smyrna and the nearby regions had made tours of inspection to the coastal towns and villages, ‘advising’ the local officials to force the Greek population out, first by economic boycotts, then, when this did not have the desired effect, by violent persecution: ‘Armed “Bashibozuks” [state-financed gangs, MB] attacked the Greek population, raped the Greek women, killed the children, etc.

In July 1915 I was ordered to accompany a convoy of deported Armenians. It was the last batch from Trebizond [Trabzon, MB] [ . . 27 Another eyewitness, Mushegh Hakobian, born 1890 in Nicomedia, also reported that Armenians were marched back and forth or in circles: ‘They were so pitiless that they made us return and walk the same road through hills and valleys anew so as to exhaust us completely. We had already no bread and no water . . 29 This typical and seemingly pointless procedure can be explained not only with the need to carry out the destruction of the remaining Armenians near remote rivers and gorges suited for the killing and disposal of bodies,30 at a safe distance from (Western) eyewitnesses, and from the general Muslim population due to fear of diseases,31 but also with keeping deportees away from sources of food and water and minimizing the possibility of escape.

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