By Anthony Charles Neville

This e-book tackles an immense unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure outdoor cells? The underlying speculation of this booklet is that the fibers are oriented through self-assembly simply open air the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part ahead of stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. eventually, he indicates that those could be imitated within the laboratory by way of liquid crystalline chemical compounds. Many effective pictures will reduction the initiated in spotting a few of the sorts of fibers.

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Extra info for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane

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Twisted plywood structure in fish scales. Diagram of successive directions of collagen fibres in odd· and even-numbered layers of scales of the fish Amia calva. Directions are measured from SEM micrographs. Contrast this with the pseudo-orthogonal architecture of beetle cuticle (Fig. 2k. K. 1) collagen fibrils are set in a glycosaminoglycan matrix, containing hyaluronic acid and chondroitin. The stroma is secreted by the overlying epithelium between three and ten days after fertiliza­ tion and has a thirty-ply orthogonal scaffolding of striated colla­ gen fibrils.

2 The occurrence of fibrous composites This chapter presents a wide range of examples of fibrous com­ posites in animals and plants. A sensible amount of such 'stamp collecting' is justified because it shows the widespread distribu­ types) in biological systems. The presentation in this chapter is systematic (by taxonomic groups) rather than comparative, for ease of access. The various types of material are described, illus­ tion and importance of fibrous architecture (especially plywood trated, and listed in tables.

The basal (A) . · . . ::. . · · · · ···. -:. 6. Basement lamella structure and regeneration. (A) Diagram of an epidennal cell sitting on laminar products secreted by itself and neighbours. The basement lamella is often a plywood of collagen fibrils. The basal lamina lies between the basement lame/la and the basal plasma membrane of the cell; the basal lamina is granular or filamentous. The basement lame/la can be revealed by enzymatic digestion of the overlying cells and basal lamina - a method used by Overton (1976).

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