By Sergey Mikhalovsky, Abdukhakim Khajibaev

This publication specializes in defence opposed to organic conflict with an emphasis on purposes of recent applied sciences and complex fabrics in detection, future health defense and clinical therapy of the inhabitants. particular subject matters comprise high-throughput delicate detection equipment, complicated nanostructured fabrics and strategies for exterior and inner safeguard of human overall healthiness, in addition to extracorporeal equipment, adsorptive fabrics and bacteriophages decontaminating the human organism, and neutralising included CBRN brokers. The contributions describe contemporary advancements within the box of biodefence geared toward holding inhabitants opposed to terrorism and terror similar occasions. Broader techniques to lowering the impression of environmental toxins on human health and wellbeing and bettering potency of clinical therapy of sufferers with viral infections, poisoning and organ failure also are mentioned.

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Additional info for Biodefence: Advanced Materials and Methods for Health Protection (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - A: Chemistry and Biology)

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Mikhalovsky and A. V. 2011 41 42 BM2 CRG ESRF NPC RH SAXS SANS WAXS E. Geissler and K. 1 Introduction High surface area nanoporous carbon (NPC) is a sorbent used almost ubiquitously both in liquid and gas phase applications ranging from drinking/waste water ­treatment, industrial or chemical/biological warfare protection to clinical treatment of acute poisoning cases by haemoadsorption. Different types of molecule occupy adsorption sites that depend on the polarity and on the surface treatment of the ­substrate.

43], toxicology of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) with a special emphasis on CNT was considered. The necessity of carrying out toxicology research as well as the lack of such work in this area was ­highlighted. It was considered that the future development of nanotoxicology is associated with the following: • Materials should be characterized and described in as many details as possible, because the nanotube toxicity can depend on by-products of their synthesis as well as on their design. 1%), detailed description of morphology, data on surface chemistry, crystallinity, and spatial organization of graphene planes; • Better understanding of mechanism of nanotube interaction with biological objects is required; the possible toxicity will depend on dose and exposure time; • Methods for tracking nanotubes in biological materials are needed to measure the rate of nanotube transport, distance of penetration from places of introduction at inhalation, with food and water, and implantation of nanotubes; • Methods for dose measurement; • Determination of the main indicators of toxicity, as carbon nanotubes can cause different toxic effects.

T. Kartel et al. 24 mg/mL CNT, contact time 8 h Monteiro-Riviere et al. 4 mg/mL CNT, contact time 48 h Tamura et al. 7) Muller et al. [17] MW CNT, purified Jia et al. [18] SW and MW CNT (arc, CVD), purified Cui et al. [19] SW CNT Peritoneal macrophages of rats – incubation in solution with 20, 50 and 100 mg/mL CNT, contact time 24 h Alveolar macrophages – solution of SW CNT (conc. 41– 226 mg/cm2) and MW CNT (conc. 78–200 mg/ mL of SW CNT Accelerated oxidative stress (production of free radicals and peroxides, exhaustion of general antioxidant reserves); decrease of cell viability, morphological changes Production of inflammatory cytokines (IL); reduction of cells viability depending on time and dose of exposure Increase of superoxide anion-radicals and inflammatory cytokine (TNF- a) production; decrease of cells viability Catching ~50% of nanotubes, no cytotoxic effect Increase of pro-fibrotic mediator TGF-b1; no oxidative burst, nitric oxide production or apoptosis was observed Release of lactate dehydrogenase and inflammatory cytokines (мRNA squirrel TNF-a) SW- single wall, MW- multiwall Reduction of cells viability and macrophages functional ability decrease Induction of apoptosis and reduction of adhesion ability (and corresponding genes), reduction of cellular proliferation PLA/CNT – nano-composites PU/CNT – nano-composites MW CNT, oxidized MW CNT, purified, different diameter PU/CNT – nano-composites MW CNT, purified and chemically modified Vertically oriented nanofibers + DNA Supronowicz et al.

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