By Atle Selberg

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What brain size actually tends to correlate with is body size. Craniometrics was practiced in two main forms: phrenology, Page 15 which came on the scene first, and craniology. Although both the craniologists and phrenologists were concerned with total skull size, the latter's special interest was measuring different parts of the skull. The phrenologists believed that each mental trait or "faculty" is controlled by a specific "organ" of the brain, and that a protuberance at a designated place on the skull denoted an ample endowment of that trait and an indentation the opposite.

Riles. The issue here was the use of IQ tests for assigning black children in disproportionate numbers to classes for the "educable mentally retarded" (EMR). Judge Peckham, finding that the disproportion was due to test bias, not to disproportionate mental retardation in black children, held that the tests violated the children's civil rights by leading to their segregation in special classes. 11 In attaining this decision, and in making strategic extensions in the testing network, the testers were greatly assisted by the resurgence of conservatism.

This, they contend, is unfair, an attempt to slay the messenger who brings bad news. What critics must recognize, they insist, is that the test scores form a "meritocracy," and that opposition to testing is therefore without foundation. In 1983, ETS held a conference that was followed, in 1984, by a book dealing with the major questions discussed there. " The contributor, an author and educator, ascribed the revulsion to the following "force": Page 5 One of the forces that underlies the criticism of the tests is egalitarianism, for the egalitarian complaint is that the tests discriminate among test takers and favor those with the best education and the most ability.

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