By Felix K. Ameka, Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu

This booklet explores the thesis that during the Kwa languages of West Africa, point and modality are extra imperative to the grammar of the verb than annoying. the place annoying marking has emerged it truly is normally within the expression of the longer term, and accordingly interested in the upcoming actualization or potentiality of an occasion, therefore with modality, instead of the only temporal sequencing linked to annoying. the first grammatical contrasts are perfective as opposed to imperfective.The major languages mentioned are Akan, Dangme, Ewe, Ga and Tuwuli whereas Nzema-Ahanta, Likpe and jap Gbe also are pointed out. wisdom approximately those languages has deepened significantly in the past decade or so and ideas approximately their constitution have replaced. the amount for this reason provides novel analyses of grammatical kinds just like the so-called S-Aux-O-V-Other or "future" buildings, and gives empirical info for theorizing approximately element and modality. it may be of substantial curiosity to Africanist linguists, typologists, and creolists drawn to substrate matters.

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One has to remember that the Stative is an inflectional superfix and belongs with other affixes like the Progressive and Habitual. It is not an accident that it does not co-occur with any of them in a clause. ) it can occur with the Present, Past and Future Time Markers. It was pointed out earlier that the Stative overlapped semantically with the Perfect and Progressive (see also Comrie 1976: 57; Welmers 1973: 347). There are, however, good semantic reasons for assigning each of them an independent place in a network of contrasts.

E. f. ѐ ѐ ѐ ѐ ѐ ѐ dìdí-ì dù-ì tìé-ì n-dídi-ì n-dú-ì n-tíé-ì ‘he ate’ ‘he arrived’ ‘he listened’ ‘he has not eaten’ ‘he has not arrived’ ‘he has not listened’ The suffix is represented by the letter -e if the verb ends in a [-Advanced] vowel. A. BOADI vowel [‫]گ‬. This vowel harmonises with the final vowel of the verb stem. For example: (51) a. b. c. d. e. ѐ ѐ ѐ ѐ ѐ tè-è tϯ-è tѐ-è n-té-è n-fá-è ‘he heard it’ ‘he hid’ ‘he bought it’ ‘he has not heard it’ ‘he has not taken it’ In sentence-medial position the suffix is represented by the same letter as the one that ends the verb stem if the latter immediately precedes a Complement or Adjunct.

4 The Past and Perfect The obvious similarity in meaning as well as common phonemic and graphic representation shared by the Past and Perfect provides an opportunity to introduce the two affixes together before proceeding to examine their respective linguistic properties in separate sections. Both the Past and Perfect depict the event described by a verb as having completed at, and as having occurred prior to, the time of speaking. In both ѐ à-dídí ‘he has eaten’ and ѐ dìdí-ì ‘he ate’ the Subject of the sentence is understood to have gone through an event prior to the time of speaking.

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