By Lamont V. Blake
This complete revision is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate point textbook on antenna basics, layout, functionality research, and measurements. as well as its use as a proper direction textbook, it's well-suited for pro education and self-study via practising engineers, scientists, and technologists who wish to extend their wisdom of antennas. The booklet presents a vast assurance of antenna kinds and phenomena, for operations at very low radio frequencies, in addition to frequencies as much as these of submillimeter wavelengths. not like such a lot university-level antenna textbooks, examining it doesn't require past talents in electromagnetic thought, subtle arithmetic, or computing device programming.
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Extra resources for Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement
The transmission from point P1 on the earth’s surface reaches point P3 by ﬁrst going to P2, high above Direct-path shadow region the earth, then down again to P3. As shown, it is possible to reach points well below the normal horizon line for directP3 path propagation from P1. Several means P1 of accomplishing this result are now Earth described. The original method of long-distance radio propagation around the curve of FIGURE 1–13. the earth was by reﬂection from the Beyond-the-horizon propagation path.
However, discontinuous coverage is possible by storing data received while passing over one part of earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. Low earth orbiting satellites are closer to the ground than geostationary satellites and consequently their equipment costs are less. Thus, relative costs involve trades between the number of satellites and their individual costs. For special purposes reﬂection from the moon’s surface has been used as a communication method at VHF. This method has the disadvantage, of course, of being limited to the times that the moon is above the horizon; it also requires very high power and large antennas.
The refractive index is deﬁned as the ratio of the speed of the wave in vacuum, c = 3 × 108 meters per second, to the speed v in the actual medium. Thus the refractive index of medium I is n1 = c/v1 and that of medium II is n2 = c/v2. Consequently, sin θ1 n2 = sin θ 2 n1 (1–17) In an electrically nonconducting medium, the wave velocity is given by v= 1 µε (1–18) where m is the magnetic permeability and e is the electric permittivity. , refractive index), therefore, is given by Radio-Wave Optical Principles 17 n= c = v µε µ0 ε 0 (1–19) where m0 and e0 are the permeability and permittivity of a vacuum.