By Allen Hatcher
"In so much significant universities one of many 3 or 4 simple first-year graduate arithmetic classes is algebraic topology. This introductory textual content is acceptable to be used in a direction at the topic or for self-study, that includes huge insurance and a readable exposition, with many examples and workouts. The 4 major chapters current the fundamentals: basic team and overlaying areas, homology and cohomology, larger homotopy teams, and homotopy concept ordinarily. the writer emphasizes the geometric elements of the topic, which is helping scholars achieve instinct. a different function is the inclusion of many not obligatory subject matters no longer frequently a part of a primary direction because of time constraints: Bockstein and move homomorphisms, direct and inverse limits, H-spaces and Hopf algebras, the Brown representability theorem, the James decreased product, the Dold-Thom theorem, and Steenrod squares and powers."
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B) Every map S 1 →X extends to a map D 2 →X . (c) π1 (X, x0 ) = 0 for all x0 ∈ X . Deduce that a space X is simply-connected iff all maps S 1 →X are homotopic. ’] 6. We can regard π1 (X, x0 ) as the set of basepoint-preserving homotopy classes of maps (S 1 , s0 )→(X, x0 ) . Let [S 1 , X] be the set of homotopy classes of maps S 1 →X , with no conditions on basepoints. Thus there is a natural map Φ : π1 (X, x0 )→[S 1 , X] obtained by ignoring basepoints. Show that Φ is onto if X is path-connected, and that Φ([f ]) = Φ([g]) iff [f ] and [g] are conjugate in π1 (X, x0 ) .
Consider one of the intervals (ai , bi ) meeting f −1 (x) . The path fi obtained by restricting f to the closed interval [ai , bi ] lies in the closure of B , and its endpoints f (ai ) and f (bi ) lie in the boundary of B . If n ≥ 2 , we can choose a path gi from f (ai ) to f (bi ) in the closure of B but disjoint from x . For example, we could choose gi to lie in the boundary of B , which is a sphere of dimension n − 1 , hence path-connected if n ≥ 2 . 6, so we may homotope f by deforming fi to gi .
Show this applies in particular when X is open or when X is a union of finitely many closed convex sets. 5. Show that for a space X , the following three conditions are equivalent: (a) Every map S 1 →X is homotopic to a constant map, with image a point. (b) Every map S 1 →X extends to a map D 2 →X . (c) π1 (X, x0 ) = 0 for all x0 ∈ X . Deduce that a space X is simply-connected iff all maps S 1 →X are homotopic. ’] 6. We can regard π1 (X, x0 ) as the set of basepoint-preserving homotopy classes of maps (S 1 , s0 )→(X, x0 ) .