By Dusan Milanovic (auth.), Branislav Jeremic (eds.)
Although many years of laboratory and scientific study have resulted in incremental development in therapy final result, lung melanoma continues to be probably the most lethal illnesses. within the moment, thoroughly up-to-date variation of this complete ebook, a few of the world’s major lung melanoma experts talk about the new advances within the radiation oncology of lung melanoma and think of the most recent examine findings. the 1st 3 sections hide the elemental technology of lung melanoma, scientific investigations, together with histology and staging, and quite a lot of primary remedy concerns. present remedy recommendations for nonsmall phone and small mobile lung melanoma are then defined and evaluated intimately, with due awareness to novel techniques that promise additional advancements in consequence. a few of the varieties of treatment-related toxicity are mentioned, and caliber of existence stories and prognostic components also are thought of. After comparing the newest technological and organic advances, together with IMRT, IMAT, cyber knife therapy, and tomotherapy, the e-book concludes via thorough attention of particular features of scientific examine in lung melanoma.
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Extra resources for Advances in Radiation Oncology in Lung Cancer
Science 269:234–238 Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, Takada S et al (2007) Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer. Nature 448:561–566 Soda M, Takada S, Takeuchi K et al (2008) A mouse model for EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19893–19897 Sos ML, Koker M, Weir BA et al (2009) PTEN loss contributes to erlotinib resistance in EGFR-mutant lung cancer by activation of Akt and EGFR. Cancer Res 69:3256–3261 15 Soucek L, Whitfield J, Martins CP et al (2008) Modelling Myc inhibition as a cancer therapy.
Although the incidence of lung cancer is now declining in men, the incidence in women continues to increase (Weir et al. 2003), probably due to changing smoking habits. According to World Health Organization histologic classification schemes (WHO 1979), there are four primary pathological types of lung cancer: smallcell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma. However, for therapeutic purposes, lung cancer is generally divided into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the latter representing approximately 80% of all lung cancer patients (Edwards et al.
2011). 20 W. Shi and D. W. Siemann Table 1 Endogenous regulatory factors involved in angiogenesis Pro-angiogenic Factors Anti-angiogenic Factors Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, B, C, D, E) Angiostatin Placental growth factor Endostatin Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) Vasostatin Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2) Thrombospondin-1 and internal fragment Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF/FGF-1) Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor Fibroblast growth factor-3 (FGF-3/int-2) Fragment of platelet factor-4 Fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4/hst/K-FGF) Derivative of prolactin Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter factor (HGF/SF) Restin Transforming growth factor-a (TGF-a) Proliferin-related protein Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) SPARC cleavage product Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) Osteopontin cleavage product Granulocyte colony stimulating factor Interferon-a, Interferon-b Interleukin-8 METH-1, METH-2 Pleiotropin Angiopoietin-2 Angiogenin Antithrombin III fragment Proliferin Interferon-inducible protein-10 Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) Angiopoietin-2 Prolactin Prostaglandin E1 and E2 Interleukin 1, 6, 12 Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) VEGF soluble receptor Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) Dll4 Intergrin Ephrin Typically, angiogenesis in tumors has been assessed indirectly by determining intratumoral microvessel density (MVD).