By John Ferling

It was once a competition of titans: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, heroes of the innovative period, as soon as intimate neighbors, now icy antagonists locked in a fierce conflict for the way forward for the U.S.. The election of 1800 was once a thunderous conflict of a crusade that climaxed in a impasse within the Electoral collage and resulted in a main issue within which the younger republic teetered at the fringe of cave in.

Adams vs. Jefferson is the gripping account of a turning aspect in American heritage, a dramatic fight among events with profoundly diverse visions of the way the country can be ruled. The Federalists, led via Adams, have been conservatives who favourite a robust imperative govt. The Republicans, led via Jefferson, have been extra egalitarian and believed that the Federalists had betrayed the Revolution of 1776 and have been backsliding towards monarchy. The crusade itself was once a barroom brawl each piece as ruthless as any sleek contest, with mud-slinging, scare strategies, and backstabbing. The low element got here while Alexander Hamilton revealed a devastating assault on Adams, the top of his personal social gathering, in "fifty-four pages of unremitting vilification." The stalemate within the Electoral collage dragged on via dozens of ballots. Tensions ran so excessive that the Republicans threatened civil struggle if the Federalists denied Jefferson the presidency. eventually a mystery deal that modified a unmarried vote gave Jefferson the White condo. A devastated Adams left Washington prior to sunrise on Inauguration Day, too embittered even to shake his rival's hand.

With magisterial command, Ferling brings to lifestyles either the outsize personalities and the hotly contested political questions at stake. He exhibits not only why this second was once a milestone in U.S. background, yet how strongly the issues--and the passions--of 1800 resonate with our personal time.

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Even if Burnham’s “City Beautiful” had become financially and politically unfeasible amid the rubble, the splendor of San Francisco could still materialize and be revealed to all at the PPIE. Thus, in 1909, at a dinner convened by Hale at the Bohemian Club, about twenty businessmen reiterated their intentions and formed a board of directors. 25 The PPIE quickly became the medium for rebuilding a more magnificent San Francisco, which would rise like a phoenix from the ashes and prove that the city deserved to stand at the apex of an empire that straddled two oceans and controlled the world’s most heavily trafficked waterway.

By this time, the field of genetics had expanded beyond Mendel’s 16 | Introduction original formulas into highly involved and technical laboratory experiments crossbreeding mice, flies, and worms and a complicated universe of acronyms and cryptic scientific notations. Geneticists were mapping the metabolic pathways of dozens of genetic diseases and discovering masking effects (epistasis) and patterns of incomplete dominance and codominance. 68 In the United States, eugenics was informed principally by Mendelianism.

54 Although Muller asserted that his scheme of artificial insemination was a far cry from the controlled procreation of a Hitler or Mussolini, his assumption that women would happily serve as the wombs of such superlative progeny was offensive to many Americans, especially feminists struggling to win greater reproductive freedom. These two examples illustrate how medical or social programs designed to encourage the breeding of some people and not others have incited anticipation, trepidation, and controversy in the United States.

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