By Philipp Haller

Fresh developments in machine structure make concurrency and parallelism a necessary factor of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency lets you exhibit real-world concurrency in a average manner utilizing concurrent strategies that converse through asynchronous messages. Scala is a programming language for the Java digital computer, offering very good aid for either object-oriented and practical programming. by means of together with a strong actor framework in its commonplace library, Scala bargains a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to follow the actor concurrency version to the JVM, allowing real-world options which are effective, scalable, and strong. released through Artima, this can be the 1st publication on Scala's actors, co-authored through the writer and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this publication bargains a complete instructional on functional programming with actors in Scala. It helps you to leverage the total energy of state-of-the-art and tomorrow's multi-core processors by way of describing either simple and complex gains of Scala's actor framework in-depth.

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That, in turn, maximizes the potential for concurrency. 2 Chapter 2 · Messages All the Way Up some control structures still need access to globally visible state. Recent additions to Scala’s actors library make it easier to reason about such shared state in the context of actors, and we will highlight those features in later chapters of this book. 2 Actors and messages The main mechanism for unifying control flow and data flow is a special abstraction, the actor, and the message-based communication that takes place between actors.

Program control flows from one actor to another as continuations are passed between actors. At the same time, the actor message that sends possible continuations may also include the data required by the actor to determine control flow. The actor model unifies control flow and data flow in the sense that data as well as an actor’s continuation can be passed inside the same message. That unified view makes it easier to design actor-based programs. When designing a program with actors, it is helpful to first determine the kinds of control flow your code requires.

The following methods produce identical results: def add(x: Int, y: Int) = x + y ... add(3, 5) 8 def curriedAdd(x: Int)(y: Int) = x + x ... add(3)(5) 8 The compiler translates the second method definition into two method invocations. 5 Chapter 3 · Scala’s Language Support for Actors in a second function. That second function now consumes y, and returns the sum of x and y: def first(x: Int) = { (y: Int) => x + y } val second = first(3) ... second(5) 8 Curried functions are useful when you wish to create a control structure with two or more arguments.

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