By Patrick Bachelery, Jean-François Lenat, Andrea Di Muro, Laurent Michon

Piton de l. a. Fournaise and Karthala are either defend volcanoes within the southwest Indian Ocean. This booklet summarizes the paintings performed on those very energetic basaltic volcanoes. Piton de l. a. Fournaise has a protracted heritage of clinical learn and tracking, with many facts accrued in the course of fresh eruptions. it really is one in all the main studied volcanoes on the earth. The paintings offered during this monograph comprises geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological points, but in addition stories on actual geography, typical dangers and the sociological and behavioural approaches.'

The Karthala volcano can be much less popular, however it serves as an enticing comparability to Piton de los angeles Fournaise. even if positioned as regards to the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them through its extra alkaline magmas and not more widespread task. It was once additionally monitored for greater than 25 years, generating outstanding eruptions in fresh years.

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Additional resources for Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala

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5 km on the northern flank and a few hundreds of meters on the eastern flanks. 2 Les Alizés Volcano Les Alizés volcano is a buried volcano whose existence is still debated in the scientific community (Lebas 2012; Salvany et al. 2012). The speculations started with the discovery of a large positive gravity anomaly near the eastern coast of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Gérard et al. 1980; Rousset et al. 1989) (Fig. 2b), in the area called Grand Brûlé. A drill hole provided the proof that the structure responsible for the gravity anomaly was actually a hypovolcanic intrusive complex, mostly composed of gabbros and cumulates (Rançon et al.

J Geophys Res 100:10163–10185 Ito G, Lin J, Graham D (2003) Observational and theoretical studies of the dynamics of mantle plume– mid-ocean ridge interaction. Rev Geophys 41(4):3–1, 3–24. 1029/2002RG000117 Kopp H, Kopp C, Phipps M, Flueh J, Ernst R, Weinrebe W, Morgan WJ (2003) Fossil hot spot-ridge interaction in the Musicians Seamount Province: geophysical investigations of hot spot volcanism at volcanic elongated ridges. J Geophys Res 108(B3). 1029/2002JB002015 Lénat JF, Merle, Lespagnol L (2009) La Réunion: an example of channeled hot spot plume.

In the submarine domain, debris avalanche deposits are regarded as the most extensive and voluminous formations. They have built four huge submarine bulges separated by submarine canyons offshore of the main rivers. The submarine bulges are essentially built of mass wasting products and sediments. The island is surrounded by a belt of hyaloclastites and pillow lavas. A few volcanic constructional features (cones, eroded piles of lava flows) have been found on the submarine flanks, with the majority being located close to the coast in continuation of the on land southwest and northeast rift zones of Piton de la Fournaise.

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