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Materials having high R-values will deform more in the plane of the sheet and less through the thickness, thus allowing more deformation before thinning and tearing. In addition to materials parameters, tooling parameters also affect the LDR. As shown in Fig. 16, the LDR increases as the die radius increases. This effect is the result of less concentration of bending stresses as the material moves around the die radius from the flange into the wall of the cup. The punch radius also affects LDR, as shown by the family of curves in Fig.

Example: To calculate the required force for punching a 15/16 in. diam hole through ASTM A-36 steel (60,000 psi shear strength) 1 in. 6 tons. Recommended press size, 96 ton series. 200 Fig. 25 in. Insufficient clearance Variation of work requirement (area under curve) with clearance Punching force, % Fig. 15 Proper clearance R T F 100 75 a 50 25 0 L 0 Punch diam Rmax = –––––––––– 4 15% min overall clearance a = mild steel Fig. 17 F 1 2 3 4 R –– T L Fig. 18 Effect of clearance on force required for punching with sheared tooling.

Effect of punch-face shear on punching force If the die clearance for punching the three holes were insufficient, the maximum required force would be greatly affected, as shown by the dotted curve. The force requirement of one punch must diminish before the next punch contacts the material. ) Calculating the effect of applying a shear angle to the face of a punch is difficult due to many variables. Figure 17 shows the effect of shear angle as related to the thickness of material being punched. For example, if the punch has an R (as defined in Fig.

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