By Eric Foner

An abridged model of Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, the definitive examine of the aftermath of the Civil warfare, winner of the Bancroft Prize, Avery O. Craven Prize, Los Angeles Times e-book Award, Francis Parkman Prize, and Lionel Trilling Prize.

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Even if Burnham’s “City Beautiful” had become financially and politically unfeasible amid the rubble, the splendor of San Francisco could still materialize and be revealed to all at the PPIE. Thus, in 1909, at a dinner convened by Hale at the Bohemian Club, about twenty businessmen reiterated their intentions and formed a board of directors. 25 The PPIE quickly became the medium for rebuilding a more magnificent San Francisco, which would rise like a phoenix from the ashes and prove that the city deserved to stand at the apex of an empire that straddled two oceans and controlled the world’s most heavily trafficked waterway.

By this time, the field of genetics had expanded beyond Mendel’s 16 | Introduction original formulas into highly involved and technical laboratory experiments crossbreeding mice, flies, and worms and a complicated universe of acronyms and cryptic scientific notations. Geneticists were mapping the metabolic pathways of dozens of genetic diseases and discovering masking effects (epistasis) and patterns of incomplete dominance and codominance. 68 In the United States, eugenics was informed principally by Mendelianism.

54 Although Muller asserted that his scheme of artificial insemination was a far cry from the controlled procreation of a Hitler or Mussolini, his assumption that women would happily serve as the wombs of such superlative progeny was offensive to many Americans, especially feminists struggling to win greater reproductive freedom. These two examples illustrate how medical or social programs designed to encourage the breeding of some people and not others have incited anticipation, trepidation, and controversy in the United States.

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