By K. Butler

A serious Humanitarian Intervention technique explores methods of reconceptualizing safety by way of Ken Booth’s conception of worldwide safeguard. This strategy, focusing on human improvement extra extensively can enhance upon the theoretical and useful obstacles of solidarist theories near to humanitarian intervention.

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While the purpose of Chapter 1 is to present the alternative theoretical foundations of the Theory of World Security, the purpose of the remaining chapters is to put these into practice. In Chapter 2 I first explain why the solidarist endeavour is problemsolving and focus in particular on its positivist method of theorising and its characteristic legitimisation of structures of domination. In an attempt to overcome the problem-solving solidarist theorising on humanitarian intervention I further propose an alternative to the problem-solving approach perspective, which I call a CHIA.

The question therefore is what is the difference between them? It will be explained in Chapter 2 why the referent object of security within the solidarist theorising on humanitarian intervention is an individual, but only an individual in the role of a victim. This is an important observation, as it suggests solidarists’ limited understanding of human rights and the implied limitation of the duties which they would impose upon state leaders within international society. Therefore, Booth’s way of treating individuals as the main object of security is different from that of the solidarists, for, following the work of Gerard Delanty, he considers the individual as part of a set of complex collectives.

An observation, he argues, is not a copy of a given reality, or a given objective world: ‘the world of objects is always the world of our objects – of our interpretation’ (Horkheimer cited in Held, 1980: 64). Crucially, to sum up, in challenging the positivist method Critical Theorists do not deny all facts or reject empirical enquiry: what is equally important to them is to recognise the so-called dependent and derivative status of conclusions based on such facts. Being aware of the power/knowledge relation and theory’s constitutive properties makes the task of recognising such conclusions or consequences feasible.

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