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GRAMMAR Existential verbs are verbs that express existence (as in 'there is', 'there exists') or location ('something is somewhere') 28 . For such expressions, ^ ^ 1 is used for first person statements and second person questions. Its negative form is ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ 1 is used for first person questions as well as second and third person statements (they pattern very similar to ^ ^ 1 and 27 ^ ^ is an alternative spelling. 28 Explained in chapters five and following. 46 I. T o exist7 The examples below show existence in the sense of 'to have7; literally, something exists with someone, or in a place.

46 I. T o exist7 The examples below show existence in the sense of 'to have7; literally, something exists with someone, or in a place. Notice that it occurs together with the locative particle, which is explained in II. below: A. Content questions and declarative sentences: 1. 8 T ^ ' ^ q T^T^l 2. 7 B. Yes/no questions and negative sentences: 1. S T ^ ' ^ ' T ^ ' ^ I 2. 7 T don7t have a pen7 IL The locative particle °i/^ The examples below show one use of the locative (or dative) particle which expresses the location of the object (as in English 'with7 or 'at'): 1.

Yes. He is a doctor. p c ' w g ' ^ ' q ^ ]1 pc'^*£'^[ Sfri'1^*! WC hospital 11. ^ sick, ill 12. fW7*! ^ sick (hon) 13. ^ at, inside 14. ^ farmer 7 . ^ to do (hon), verbalizer i6. S^g'^ student 39 8 . ^ to sell 17. q g to make, to iw£)38 NO 10. & ^ businessman cook 9. %F 38 field According to most Tibetans asked, ^Wf! 18. ^ monk is the written form and 1*W<5> is the spoken form although sometimes ^ ^ & also appears in books and dictionaries. 39 This is a synonym of nj^ 5H; both are used in Lhasa.

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